is a secondary problem originating from fallen cross arches. The
toes start to curl and get pulled backwards, as the collapsed or pushed out metatarsal bones pull the tendons and ligaments, and causes them to get shorter and tighter. This condition causes the toes
have higher pressure and they have limited movement and cannot be straightened fully. This can lead to numbness and pain in the toes as muscles, nerves, joints and little ligaments are involved with
this condition. As the top part of the toe can rub against the shoe, it can cause corns and calluses.
Hammer toe is often caused by wearing shoes that do not fit properly. If shoes are too small either in length or width, then the toes are held in a shortened position for long periods and the muscles
eventually shorten and pull the toes into the bent position. Alternatively it can be caused by overactivity in the extensor digitorum dongus muscle (right) and a weakness in the counteracting muscle
under the foot, such as flexor digitorum longus. Sometimes it can be a congenital condition, meaning it is present from birth. It is also more common in those with arthritis in the foot or
The symptoms of hammertoe are progressive, meaning that they get worse over time. Hammertoe causes the middle joint on the second, third, fourth, or fifth toes to bend. The affected toe may be
painful or irritated, especially when you wear shoes. Areas of thickened skin (corns) may develop between, on top of, or at the end of your toes. Thickened skin (calluses) may also appear on the
bottom of your toe or the ball of your foot. It may be difficult to find a pair of shoes that is comfortable to wear.
Most health care professionals can diagnose hammertoe simply by examining your toes and feet. X-rays of the feet are not needed to diagnose hammertoe, but they may be useful to look for signs of some
types of arthritis (such as rheumatoid arthritis) or other disorders that can cause hammertoe.
Non Surgical Treatment
Orthotics are shoe inserts that can help correct mechanical foot-motion problems to correct pressure on your toe or toes and reduce pain. Changing shoes. You should seek out shoes that conform to the
shape of your feet as much as possible and provide plenty of room in the toe box, ensuring that your toes are not pinched or squeezed. You should make sure that, while standing, there is a half inch
of space for your longest toe at the end of each shoe. Make sure the ball of your foot fits comfortably in the widest part of the shoe. Feet normally swell during the course of the day, so shop for
shoes at the end of the day, when your feet are at their largest. Don't be vain about your shoe size, sizes vary by brand, so concentrate on making certain your shoes are comfortable. Remember that
your two feet are very likely to be different sizes and fit your shoe size to the larger foot. Low-heel shoes. High heels shift all your body weight onto your toes, tremendously increasing the
pressure on them and the joints associated with them. Instead, wear shoes with low (less than two inches) or flat heels that fit your foot comfortably.
Joint resection procedures involves removing part of one of the two small joints of the toe directly underneath where the digit is crooked. The purpose is to make room for the toe to be re-positioned
flat or straight. Because hammer toes become rigid or fixed with time, removing the joint becomes the only option when the knuckle is stiff. Its important to understand that this procedure does not
involve the joint of the ball of the foot, rather the a small joint of the toe. Medical terminology for this procedure is called a proximal interphalangeal joint arthroplasty or a distal
interphalangeal joint arthroplasty, with the latter involving the joint closer to the tip of the toe.
Have your feet properly measured, make sure that, while standing, there is a centimetre (? thumb) of space for your longest toe at the end of each shoe. Buy shoes that fit the longer foot. Shop at
the end of the day, when foot swelling is greatest. Don't go by numbers, sizes vary by brand, so make certain Hammer toes
your shoes are comfortable. Wear wide shoes with
resilient soles, avoid shoes with pointed toes.